Adult dating for zimbabwe
Many obstacles prevent young Zimbabweans from acting on their desire to postpone parenthood and stay HIV-free.
Protecting adolescents from unintended pregnancy and HIV infection by providing them with essential sexual and reproductive health information and services will be critical if Zimbabwe is to fulfill its long-term economic development goals.
Just one-quarter of these women use a modern method as of 2011.
Not only is this proportion lower than that among married adolescents, but it has been steadily declining over the past decade—from 48% in 1999 to 34% in 2006 to 25% in 2011.[12,18,19] Thus, these women would appear to have a harder time preventing unintended pregnancy now than in previous years.
Supporting adolescents’ needs will also bring the country closer to achieving two reproductive health–related Millennium Development Goals.
• As of 2011, 38% of young Zimbabwean women have had sex by age 18, as have 23% of young men; this difference has widened over time.
Rural adolescents give birth at twice the rate of urban adolescents (144 vs. Moreover, the rate of teenage childbearing increased in rural areas (from 120–125 births per 1,000 in 19 to 144 births per 1,000 in 2011), whereas in urban areas it declined between 19 (from 93 to 70), and has not fallen since.
28% among those in the bottom quintile). In urban areas, a general decline in the proportion of births that are unplanned stalled in 2006, and the proportion increased slightly in 2011.Moreover, in a country with a declining, but still very high, HIV prevalence (15% of 15–49-year-olds were HIVpositive in 2011), sexual activity without consistent condom use can expose adolescents to the risk of HIV infection.In Zimbabwe, 34% of adolescent females have had sexual intercourse, as have 25% of adolescent males.As of 2011, however, young men first have sexual intercourse almost two years later than do young women: Median age at first sex has stayed stable at 18.8–18.9 over all three surveys among women, but it has risen steadily, from 19.1 to 20.0 to 20.6, among men.[7,8,10] Nearly one-quarter of all 15–19-year-old Zimbabwean women (23%) are currently in a union,‡ and the proportion in rural areas is almost double that in urban areas (28% vs.16%). Poorer adolescent women are more likely than better-off ones to be married (31% vs. Furthermore, 13% of 15–17-year-olds have been in a union as of 2011, and these very early marriages are more common in rural than in urban areas (16% vs. The fact that only 1% of Zimbabwean males enter into a union during adolescence reflects a widespread phenomenon found throughout Sub-Saharan Africa: Adolescent women usually marry older men. Wide age differences between spouses (often referred to as “age mixing”) can lead to power imbalances in relationships and an increased risk of HIV infection for young wives, since married couples rarely use condoms and older husbands have more years of sexual experience and thus higher HIV prevalence. In Zimbabwe, teenage marriage is closely associated with teenage motherhood, since entrenched traditional values call for newly married women to solidify their union by giving birth within the first year of marriage. The large urban-rural differential in the proportions of adolescent women who are married is echoed in the proportions who have already given birth—23% of rural adolescents, but only 12% of their urban counterparts. The birthrate among adolescents— one of the indicators that has been targeted to meet the maternal health Millennium Development Goal—changed little between 19, and stands at 115 births per 1,000 women aged 15–19 (Figure 2).
For decades, Zimbabwe has been one of the countries most severely affected by the pandemic, and until very recently HIV was involved in 30–40% of maternal deaths.[1,2] The country has thus made insufficient headway in lowering maternal mortality —even with improvements in pregnancy and delivery care—and despite considerable progress, Zimbabwe will be unable to halt the spread of HIV by 2015. This report presents a snapshot of adolescents’ ability to adequately protect their sexual and reproductive health.